© 2017 by amir_mazlan & Alypz


Alypz has a fully equipped laboratory that can provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of radionuclide for all types of samples including sludge/scale, minerals and other geochemical and environmental samples. The laboratory is ISO 17025 accredited and licensed with the Atomic Energy Licensing Board to provide for gamma spectroscopy using the state of the art High Purity Germanium Coaxial Detector / Counting Systems. In addition, the laboratory has a fully automated low background Gross Alpha and Gross Beta counting system that can analyze up to 50 samples in a run for gross radioactivity values.

Type of Analysis

Gamma Spectrometry

Most radioactive sources produce gamma rays with various energies and intensities. Gamma-ray spectrometry is the quantitative study applicable to determine the energy spectra of gamma ray emission from a radioactive source. When these emissions are detected with a spectrometry system, a gamma-ray energy spectrum is produced. A detailed analysis is performed on this spectrum to determine the identity and quantity of gamma emitters present and interpreted to the activity concentration in Becquerel (Bq) unit.

The Laboratory uses a vertically mounted, coaxial High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with operation capability from 40 up to 2000 keV.

Gross Alpha/Beta

Gross Alpha/Beta as a rapid method to estimate the activities of alpha and beta radionuclides in water, air filters, soils, sludge, and wastewater. The purpose of gross alpha and beta measurements is to:

  1. Provide adequate information concerning the activity within samples, and, thus, to determine if further detailed analyses are required,

  2. Support accountability of radioactive materials and ensure that the activity is not exceeding the limit

  3. Ensure that the transportation of radioactive materials has not been violated.

Type of Samples

The Laboratory handles various types of samples which categorized into 3;

  1. Solid

  2. Liquid

  3. Smear paper / Filter Paper

Sample Volume

To perform an analysis, a sample provided to laboratory shall have enough volume.  The minimum volume needed is per below described:

Types of Sample
Sample Volume
Gamma Spectrometry
Gross Alpha & Beta
1. Liquid Sample
500 ml ~ 4000 ml
500 ml ~ 1000 ml
2. Solid Sample
1000 g
100 g
3. Flora and Fauna (Ash) 
100 g
10 g
4. Filter Paper (Air & Wipe Test)
47mm (diameter)
47mm (diameter)

Table 1: Volume of samples required for an analysis (Source: LWP/2; Sec 1, Ver 5)

Sample Preconditioning

a)    Liquid Sample

Sample pre-conditioning is required for liquid sample upon sampling and shall be performed on-site. Immediately after collection, the samples shall be preserved by adding 15 ml per liter of 1M Nitric Acid (HNO3) or get the sample to pH 2. In a case of no preservation been made, the sample shall reach Laboratory maximum up to 5 days after collection for further treatment. By adding the acid, it precludes the formation of precipitates and radionuclide loss via adsorption. In addition, low pH will minimize the adsorption of radionuclides on container walls by creating relatively non-polar surfaces.

b)    Other Sample

No special preconditioning required for other samples. 

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